ubuntu

Beginner: Why there are many Linux Distributions?

There are different variants of Linux in the market like RedHat, Debian, CentOS, Ubuntu, Mandrake, Suse and a Linux beginner often ponder why they call Linux distributions by various names. The kernel or the heart of all the distributions is Linux and in bringing it to different market usage different community or vendors have adopted the kernel to serve that purpose.
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Apache: Where to put site configuration settings?

/etc/apache2/conf.d/ and /etc/apache2/sites-enabled are the two locations from where configuration settings are ready by apache

Apache configuration file has two lines (listed below) in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf which does that

# Include generic snippets of statements
Include /etc/apache2/conf.d/

# Include the virtual host configurations:
Include /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/

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Ubuntu: Configuring Virtual Hosts to listen on different ports

Files to check
– /etc/apache2/ports.conf
– /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

Consider the ServerName to be “myserver”. Check /etc/hosts for an entry

127.0.0.1 localhost
192.168.1.100 myserver.com myserver

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Ubuntu: Where to find Apache Error log?

Location where the Apache error log entries can be found in Ubuntu

user@server:~# less /var/log/apache2/error.log

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Configuring postfix to send mail via satellite system

Step 1: $ sudo apt-get install postfix

Postfix configuration screen throws you with the following options to choose from
i) No changes (no changes to configuration settings)
ii) Internet site (Mail sent and received using SMTP)
iii) Internet with smarthost (Mail sent to another machine called smarthost)
iV) Satellite system (All mail sent to another machine for delivery)
v) Local only (No network based mail system. Only applied to this local machine)
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How to find the version of Apache?

In ubuntu, it is

$ apache2 -v

In CentOS, it is

$ httpd -v

To find out where apache2 or httpd program is installed you can do the
$ whereis apache2 or,
$ locate httpd

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How to burn ISO image from Ubuntu Command Line?

First list down the CD/DVD devices connected to your machine and find the device name. Some of the tools that comes handy in an Ubuntu machine are ‘wodim’, ‘genisoimage’

Wodim stands for Write Data to Optical Disk Media. If you don’t have the software installed in your Ubuntu release do an apt-get

$ apt-get install wodim

To know more about wodim and its parameter definition try man on wodim

To list the CD/DVD devices on the machine, issue

$ wodim –devices

wodim: Overview of accessible drives (2 found) :
————————————————————————-
0 dev=’/dev/scd0′ rwrw– : ‘HL-DT-ST’ ‘CD-RW GCE-8481B’
1 dev=’/dev/scd1′ rwrw– : ‘HL-DT-ST’ ‘DVD-ROM GDR8161B’

Our read-write CD device is in /dev/scd0. So our command for burning the .iso image

$ wodim dev=/dev/scd0 driveropts=burnfree -v -data ubuntu8desktop.iso

To burn audio files

$ wodim dev=/dev/scd0 driveropts=burnfree -v -audio one.wav two.wav three.wav

Further read
i) ubuntu guide http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Feisty/CDDVDBurning

ii) ubuntu site https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CdDvd/Burning

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Ubuntu Hardy Heron, CakePHP Setting in Virtual Host Environment

If you are to setup CakePHP in a virtual hosting environment, we need to ensure that the DocumentRoot is setup correctly. Based on the experience I have had I thought to list down the virtual host setting and cakephp .htaccess setting files.

root@myserver:/etc/apache2/conf.d# cat vhosts.conf
NameVirtualHost 192.168.1.100:80

<VirtualHost 192.168.1.100:80>
ServerName cakeapp
DocumentRoot /var/www/cakeapp
</VirtualHost>

(Note that there is no ending forward slash after /var/www/cakeapp. If there had been one, it might cause a problem if the /var/www/cakeapp/app/config/routes.php is not configured correctly indicating a never ending loop in resolving domain name)

root@myserver:/etc/apache2/conf.d# cat /var/www/cakeapp/.htaccess
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^$ app/webroot/ [L] RewriteRule (.*) app/webroot/$1 [L] </IfModule>

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Ubuntu, Apache: Virtual Hosting

Virtual Hosting in Ubuntu Hardy Heron: Case Example

Consider the case of two domain names mysite1 and site2 to be served on IP Address 192.168.1.100 (port 80)

Before proceeding let us look at how resolv.conf and hosts file are set up …

$ cat /etc/resolv.conf
search kurinchilion.com
nameserver 192.168.1.100

$ cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 localhost
192.168.1.100 myserver.kurinchilion.com myserver

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

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Apache, Ubuntu, CentOS: Virtual Host Configuration

What is Virtual Hosting?

Virtual Hosting is a technique by which web servers can serve more than one domain name on the same server. It can also be a variation of serving different sites on the same IP but on different ports.
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