PEAR stands for PHP Extension and Application Repository.
To learn more about the PEAR library click here
If you are beginner, the following link will help you tread with the library usage PEAR Manual
Installation instructions clearly walks through the steps for PEAR configuration. There may be cases where you may want to use PEAR libraries for specific projects only in which case you can install PEAR library for that specific purpose. To use it in projects, PEAR path should be set in php.ini settings or should be included in the project configuration’s physical path.